Tuesday, August 30, 2016

Propolis Boosts Bactericidal Activity of Human Monocytes Against S. mutans

Immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory effects of a propolis-containing mouthwash on human monocytes

Pathog Dis. 2016 Aug 26

Propolis is a bee product used in folk medicine to improve health and prevent inflammatory diseases. It has attracted the attention of researchers from the odontological field lately, reducing inflammation resulting from surgical procedures and as an antimicrobial agent in the control of bacterial plaque.

Thus far, no side-effects that might compromise oral health have been observed. Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent widely used as an antiseptic, but side-effects restrict its use.

This work investigated the effects of an odontological product containing propolis in combination with chlorhexidine in lower concentrations on human monocytes. Cell markers expression, the NF-kB signaling pathway, the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and the bactericidal activity of these cells against Streptococcus mutans were evaluated.

Data showed that the combination of propolis and chlorhexidine may favor the recognition of antigens by monocytes, activates slightly the NF-kB signaling pathway and increases the bactericidal activity of human monocytes against S. mutans.

Also, the combination played a role in anti-inflammatory cytokine production, which can be beneficial in the treatment of periodontal diseases.

These results may have implications for the development of odontological products with immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory action, and may have further reaching implications for the pharmaceutical industry.

Monday, August 29, 2016

Propolis Helps Treat Oral Cavity Diseases

Propolis, A Hope for the Future in Treating Resistant Periodontal Pathogens

Cureus. 2016 Jul 12;8(7):e682


Periodontitis is one of the most common causes of tooth loss worldwide. Recently, special attention has been paid to natural medication for its treatment. For this purpose, propolis (bee glue) activity has also been investigated. Its antibacterial properties are mainly attributed to flavonones pinocembrin, flavonols galangin and to the caffeic acid phenethyl ester. This study is aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial effects of propolis from Pakistan on 35 clinical isolates of pigmented anaerobic periodontal pathogens.


This study was conducted in the Microbiology department, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. Pathogens included were Porphyromonas asaccharolytica (n=9), Porphyromonas gingivalis (n=13), Prevotella intermedia (n=9), Prevotella melaninogenica (n=4). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to three antibiotics was obtained by E-test method. All strains were sensitive to amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid and metronidazole, but 100% of P asaccharolytica and P melaninogenica strains displayed intermediate resistance to tetracycline while 69.2% P gingivalis and 100% P intermedia strains exhibited complete resistance to tetracycline. Screening for antibacterial activity of propolis extract was done by agar well diffusion assay, and all strains were found sensitive to ethanolic extract of propolis.


MIC was obtained by agar incorporation technique with values ranging from 0.064 to 0.512 mg/ml. It was also noticed that percentage yield of ethanolic extract of propolis prepared from ultrasonic extraction method was higher compared to extract obtained with maceration.


These results indicate that propolis from this region has potent antimicrobial activity against pigmented anaerobic periodontal pathogens. Taking into consideration the increasing resistance in anaerobic bacteria, this effective antimicrobial activity of propolis gives hope in the treatment of oral cavity diseases.

Sunday, August 28, 2016

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bee Venom Studied

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bee Venom in BV2 Microglial Cells: Mediation of MyD88-Dependent NF-κB Signaling Pathway

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:3704764

Bee venom has long been used as a traditional folk medicine in Korea. It has been reportedly used for the treatment of arthritis, cancer, and inflammation. Although its anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated inflammatory cells has been reported, the exact mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated.

Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of bee venom in BV2 microglial cells. We first investigated whether NO production in LPS-activated BV2 cells was inhibited by bee venom, and further iNOS mRNA and protein expressions were determined. The mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were examined using semiquantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. Moreover, modulation of the transcription factor NF-κB by bee venom was also investigated using a luciferase assay. LPS-induced NO production in BV2 microglial cells was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner upon pretreatment with bee venom. Bee venom markedly reduced the mRNA expression of COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and suppressed LPS-induced activation of MyD88 and IRAK1 and phosphorylation of TAK1. Moreover, NF-κB translocation by IKKα/β phosphorylation and subsequent IκB-α degradation were also attenuated.

Thus, collectively, these results indicate that bee venom exerts its anti-inflammatory activity via the IRAK1/TAK1/NF-κB signaling pathway.

Saturday, August 27, 2016

Honey, Propolis and Bee Pollen Human Carbonic Anhydrase

Investigation of the inhibitory properties of some phenolic standards and bee products against human carbonic anhydrase I and II

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2016 Aug 25:1-6

Polyphenols are important secondary products of plants with the potential to inhibit carbonic anhydrases. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition effects of various phenolic standards, honey, propolis, and pollen species on human carbonic anhydrase I and II. The inhibition values (IC50) of the phenolics (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin, catechin, tannic acid, and chrysin) ranged from 0.009 to 0.32 μg/mL, tannic acid emerging as the best inhibitor.

The inhibition values of three different types of honey, heather, rhododendron, and chestnut ranged between 2.32 and 25.10 μg/mL, the chestnut honeys exhibiting the best inhibition. The ethanolic extracts of pollen and propolis exhibited good inhibitory properties, with IC50 values between 0.486 and 3.320 μg/mL. In order to evaluate the phenolic composition of bee products, phenolic profiles and total phenolic contents (TFC) were also measured. The inhibition ranking among the natural products studied was phenolic standards > propolis > pollen > honeys, and inhibition was related to TFC.

Friday, August 26, 2016

There's a Battle to Trademark Manuka, the Champagne of Honeys

Bloomberg, 8/24/2016

There's a fight Down Under over manuka honey, the so-called superfood famed for its antibacterial qualities. On one side, New Zealand beehive owners say they should have exclusive rights to the manuka name. On the other, Australian producers say the manuka tree that gives the sticky stuff its name is an Aussie native and their honey is just as super as its Kiwi cousin.

Thursday, August 25, 2016

German Workshop on Bee Venom therapy, Apitherapy

October 26, 27, 28, 29 and 30, 2016

Landsberg, Germany

Epfenhauser Straße 3

Theoretical and practical sessions on Bee Venom Therapy in particular and Apitherapy and other techniques in general.

Theoretische und praktische Unterrichtungen zur Bienengift-Therapie, besonders bei der Apitherapie und anderer Techniken im Allgemeinen

Languages of the workshop: English and German

Sprachen: Englisch und Deutsch ( Übersetzung + Präsentation )

Wednesday, August 24, 2016

Does Natural Honey-Containing Fructose have Benefits to Diabetic Patients?

Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences 23(2):86 · March 2016

A  systematic  review  and  meta-analysis  by Cozma  et  al.  (4)  resulted  in  some  important findings  with  respect  to  the effect  of fructose  in diabetic  patients.  The  authors  concluded  that compared  to  other  carbohydrates,  fructose  has greater long term benefits for improving glycemic control  and  has no  effect on  insulin  and fasting glucose.  Moreover,  unlike  the  work  of  Bahrami et  al.  (3),  this  study  showed  improvements  in HbA1c levels as a result of fructose consumption. However,  this  review  has  several  limitations, including the short duration (less than 12 weeks) and relatively low quality of most trials analyzed. Thus, larger and longer studies are recommended.

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Qairooti (Cerate or Cera Beeswax Salve) in Traditional Iranian Pharmacy

Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41(3):S8


Qairooti (Cerate), a medicinal salve or ointment, compounded of wax and oil, is a formulation used alone or as a basis for medicinal dosage forms. It is widely used from the ancient times to the present. Based on its structure, beeswax has unique characteristics. It builds stable emulsions and increases water absorbance of creams and ointments. The aim of this study was to gather all pharmaceutical information about preparing Qairooti products from traditional pharmacopoeaes, such as the various types of Qairooti and their preparation methods.


In this article, various types of Qairooti, their producing method and related indications have been discussed based on the main medical Persian manuscripts including Al-Canon fil tibb (Canon of Avicenna), Gharabadin-e-Kabir, Gharabadin-e-Salehi, Exir-e-Azam, Alhavi, Kamel-al-sanaat, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, al-Shamel-fi-sanawat-al-tebie, Ekhtiarate badiee, Kholasat-al-tajarob, Tib-e-Akbari, Mofareh al-gholoob, Makhzan-ul-Adwiah, Hedayat-al-motealemin-fi-al-tibb, Altasrif-le-man-ajeza-an-talif, etc.


About 500 different formulations from the above-mentioned manuscripts were found and their preparation method and other required information were collected. The amounts of oil and wax in Qairooti are not fixed and depend on different factors; providing the best consistency and appearance of the formulation, such as seasonal temperature. In order to prepare cerate, wax has to be melted by indirect heat and then mixed with the isothermal oil. Mixing process should be performed precisely to provide a homogenized product. If the multi-ingredient cerate is needed, other constituents have to be added to the warm mixture of oil and wax.


There are many kinds of Qairooti in traditional Iranian pharmacopoeias recommended for different indications. Cerate was a common medication for injuries and wounds. Although it is still used in conventional medicine, some clinical applications in traditional Iranian medicine have been forgotten nowadays. It is recommended that we have a smarter approach to the traditional pharmacopoeias in order to use past experience and transcend existing knowledge of modern pharmacy.

Monday, August 22, 2016

Tester Microorganisms for Power of Medicinal Honeys

Honey sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants are impaired in catalase A

Microbiology. 2016 Aug 9

The antimicrobial power of honey seems to be ascribable to several factors, including oxidative and osmotic stress. The aim of this study was to find genetic determinants involved in the response to honey stress in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, chosen as model microorganism.

A library of transposon mutants of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was constructed and only four mutants unable to grow in presence of fir honeydew honey were selected. All four mutants were impaired in the major H2O2-scavenging enzyme catalase A (Kat A). The knock-out of katA gene caused sensitivity, as expected, to hydrogen peroxide, but also to different types of honey including Manuka GMO 220 honey. Genetic complementation, as well as the addition of PAO1 supernatant containing extracellular catalase, restored tolerance to honey stress in all the mutants.

As P. aeruginosa PAO1 catalase Kat A copes with H2O2 stress, it is conceivable that the antimicrobial activity of honey is, at least partially, due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide in honey or the ability of honey to induce production of hydrogen peroxide.

The katA deficient mutants could be used as tester microorganisms to compare the power of different types of natural and curative honeys in eliciting oxidative stress mediated by hydrogen peroxide.

Sunday, August 21, 2016

Difficulty of Establishing a Uniform Quality Standard for Propolis from Diverse Geographical Origins

Comparative Study of Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Yellow, Green, Brown, and Red Brazilian Propolis

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2016;2016:6057650

The chemical composition and biological activity of a sample of yellow propolis from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil (EEP-Y MS), were investigated for the first time and compared with green, brown, and red types of Brazilian propolis and with a sample of yellow propolis from Cuba.

Overall, EEP-Y MS had different qualitative chemical profiles, as well as different cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities when compared to the other types of propolis assessed in this study and it is a different chemotype of Brazilian propolis.

Absence of phenolic compounds and the presence of mixtures of aliphatic compounds in yellow propolis were determined by analysing (1)H-NMR spectra and fifteen terpenes were identified by GC-MS. EEP-Y MS showed cytotoxic activity against human tumour strain OVCAR-8 but was not active against Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria.

Our results confirm the difficulty of establishing a uniform quality standard for propolis from diverse geographical origins. The most appropriate pharmacological applications of yellow types of propolis must be further investigated.

Saturday, August 20, 2016

Bee Venom Used to Treat Musculoskeletal Disease in Korea

Usage report of pharmacopuncture in musculoskeletal patients visiting Korean medicine hospitals and clinics in Korea

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2016 Aug 17;16(1):292


Pharmacopuncture is a relatively new acupuncture therapy combining acupuncture with herbal medicine. While pharmacopuncture is applied extensively in Korean medicine treatment, there are no clinical reports regarding what types of pharmacopuncture are used for which diseases.


Data was extracted retrospectively from the electronic medical records of all inpatients and outpatients at 12 Korean medicine hospitals and clinics during the period of December 17, 2010 to October 2, 2014. Treatment patterns for acupuncture, electroacupuncture and pharmacopuncture were analyzed. Principle diagnosis codes, frequency of treatment, pharmacopuncture type and costs were investigated to assess pharmacopuncture use in clinical settings.


During the study period, a total 33,415 inpatients and 373,755 outpatients visited the study sites, and most were musculoskeletal. Among inpatients and outpatients, 98.6 % and 77.6 % received pharmacopuncture, respectively. Administration rate of pharmacopuncture for the 10 most frequent principle diagnosis codes was 97.2-99.3 % in inpatients, and that for outpatients was 73.0-91.5 %. The average number of pharmacopuncture sessions in pharmacopuncture recipients was 8.2 ± 12.3 for outpatients and 25.8 ± 18.7 for inpatients. The mean total cost for pharmacopuncture per patient was $556.24 ± 174.62 among inpatients, and $149.16 ± 243.85 among outpatients. Estimated average cost per pharmacopuncture session was $23-24 for inpatients, and $17-18 for outpatients. Shinbaro1, bee venom, Hwangryunhaedok, and Shinbaro2 were the most frequently used pharmacopuncture types.


This is the first analysis of treatment patterns of pharmacopuncture in a large-scale Korean medicine hospital/clinic patient population. We verified patterns of pharmacopuncture use for musculoskeletal disease treatment in Korea, and use of pharmacopuncture varied depending on disease or symptom severity. These results are expected to contribute to future clinical study design and standardization of pharmacopuncture.

Friday, August 19, 2016

Kelulut Stingless Bee Honey May Protect Against Colon Cancer

Chemopreventive Properties and Toxicity of Kelulut Honey in Sprague Dawley Rats Induced with Azoxymethane

Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:4036926

Ethnopharmacological Relevance. Colon cancer has been a major problem worldwide. Kelulut honey (KH) is produced by the stingless bees from Trigona species and has strong antioxidant activities that could be one of the potential chemopreventive agents from natural resources.

Aim of This Study. This study investigated the chemopreventive properties and toxicity of KH in Sprague Dawley rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM).

Material and Method. Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats aged 5 weeks were divided into 4 groups: (G1) untreated group not induced with AOM, (G2) untreated group induced with AOM, (G3) treated group induced with AOM, and (G4) treated group not induced with AOM. Injection of AOM (15 mg/kg) was via intraperitoneal route once a week for two subsequent weeks. The treatment groups were given oral administration of KH (1183 mg/kg body weight) twice daily for 8 weeks.

Results. Treatment with KH significantly reduced the total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and aberrant crypts (AC) and crypt multiplicity. KH was not toxic to the animals since the level of blood profile parameters, liver enzymes, and kidney functions was in normal range.

Conclusions. The current finding shows that KH has chemopreventive properties in rats induced with colorectal cancer and also was found not toxic towards the animals.

Thursday, August 18, 2016

VIDEO: Bee Venom Therapy Provides Unique Relief to Parkinson’s Sufferers

WGN, 8/17/2016

This time of year, the bees in your backyard may be driving you crazy. But not everyone sees them as a danger. For some those stinging honey bees are lifesavers - literally.

The program is called "bee venom therapy," and one Chicago-area doctor is giving it a new twist: he's encouraging some patients to use bee stings on acupuncture points to stop diseases like Parkinson's from progressing...

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

Citrus and Thyme Honeys Have Low GI

Glycemic index values of monofloral Turkish honeys and the effect oftheir consumption on glucose metabolism

Turk J Med Sci. 2016 Feb 17;46(2):483-8


Clinical trials have shown that low glycemic index (GI) nutrition reduces mean blood glucose concentrations and insulin secretions. The aim of the present study was to determine the GI values of various monofloral (citrus, milk-vetch, chestnut, thyme, lime, pine) honeys of Turkey, and the effect of their consumption on glucose metabolism.


Processing data from 20 healthy volunteers, GI values were determined from the glycemia values by using the incremental area method. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels were also measured before and 120 min after the test.


The GI values of citrus, thyme, lime, chestnut, pine, and milk-vetch honeys were found to be 44.9, 52.6, 55.3, 55.5, 58.8, and 69, respectively. Serum insulin and C-peptide values after honey consumption were relatively lower than those after reference food (glucose) consumption. By the end of the 120 min, serum insulin levels were significantly higher, while a significant decrease was observed after the consumption of chestnut honey (P < 0.05).


Citrus and thyme honeys were determined to have low GI, while serum insulin levels were significantly lower after the consumption of chestnut honey. Long-term research is needed to compare the effects of honey consumption on healthy and diabetic individuals.

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

Honey, Propolis, Pollen, and Royal Jelly Significantly Enhance Healing of Liver

Apitherapy products enhance the recovery of CCL4-induced hepatic damages in rats

Turk J Med Sci. 2016 Jan 5;46(1):194-202


Our objective was to identify the antioxidant properties of honeybee products from Turkey, chestnut honey, pollen, propolis, and royal jelly, and their hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats.


Animals were fed with honeybee products for 7 days following CCl4 injection. Development of liver damage and oxidative stress were monitored by measuring the activities of the enzymes alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Antioxidant capacities of the bee products were identified using FRAP and DPPH assays, as well as by measuring total phenolic and flavonoid contents.


The antioxidant activities of the honeybee products were highest in propolis, followed, in order, by pollen, honey, and royal jelly. Despite their different levels of antioxidant capacity, their roles in the prevention of liver damage induced by CCl4 were very similar, which can be explained through their bioavailability to the treated animals.


Our results suggest that honey, propolis, pollen, and royal jelly significantly enhanced the healing of CCl4-induced liver damage, partially due to their antioxidant properties and bioavailability.